This is simply one of the most extraordinary places in golf!
Augusta National Golf Club, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of Saint Andrews, the Coaching Club of New York and the Knickerbocker Club are unfairly discriminating against women.
by Charlie Leck
It’s Masters week. That’s probably not a very big deal for most of you, but around here it is very big indeed. Now don’t go running off just because you aren’t a golfer. This blog isn’t really about golf.
I’m writing here today about discrimination, injustice and unfair exclusivity.
Several weeks ago I wrote about my decision to resign from the most prestigious and exclusive club I had ever been asked to join or ever would be invited to join. I recounted that tale in a blog called Why We Can’t Wait.
I do not intend to write here about the August National Golf Club at which the Masters Golf Tournament is played. In passing, however, I will remind you that, although women are allowed to play golf there, it is an all male club, that it does not allow women members and that it doesn’t want to publically discuss the matter. I personally think this is a shame, but I have bigger fish to fry today.
Let’s talk about the very heart and soul of the golf world – its most important and prestigious club within the sport. Let’s talk about the Royal and Ancient Golf Club – the very seat of golf for the entire world.
Do you know about it?
Have you been to Saint Andrews, Scotland?
I hope the answer to both those questions is a hearty yes! Most specifically I hope the answer to the latter is positive. The city of Saint Andrews is a charmer. I found it one of the sweetest, loveliest places on the globe. I could easily imagine myself living there. It would be an easy, gentle place in which to dwell.
Of course, one of the institutions in the city that charms me the most is the Old Course. Oh, I have written about it before. It is a bit like heaven for the avid golfer. It is also a huge slice of the history and lore of golf. For those of you who might want to read it, I have appended to this blog an essay I wrote in 2005 about the Old Course. This was distributed among a number of golfers back then and it was received with great enthusiasm by most of them.
It is time now to zero in on my real subject today; and that is the famous club in Scotland that rules over golf the world over – except in North America. It is the pinnacle of golf clubs in all the world. It was established in 1754. It became the leading authority on the game of golf. Standing membership in it is extraordinarily exclusive.
One dignitary who, by tradition, could always expect membership within the club was the principal officer of the University of Saint Andrews. Recently, the University invited a woman to that position and she has not yet received an invitation to membership in the exclusive golf club. Louise Richardson, the new head of the University, has made it clear she would accept such an invitation.
How does the adage go? “Don’t hold your breath!”
There’s lot of huffing and puffing going on about this. It’s pointed out that there is a perfectly suitable women’s club to which Dr. Richardson could belong if she is longing for a golf club.
The fact is, Richardson probably wouldn’t even play. There is a more important point here and it is the same point I was trying to make when I wrote about my resignation from the old and stuffy Coaching Club of New York (Why We Can’t Wait).
The world is supposed to have changed. Women are clearly now in the international market place and they are competing as actively as men for world leadership in business.
Membership in clubs like Augusta National Golf Club and the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of Saint Andrews are awesome items to include in one’s curriculum vitae. That a woman cannot hope to attain such membership puts her at a competitive disadvantage. The fellows giggle at that, but it is the down-right truth.
The Knickerbocker Club in New York City claims that it does not allow business to be conducted within its club facility and therefore it – an all male membership – is not participating in the market place of business and politics. Nonsense! Who believes that is bigger than a fool!
The same is true of the British Coaching Club and the Coaching Club of New York. It’s true of Pine Valley Golf Club in New Jersey and the Bob O’Link Golf Club in Chicago.
The last thing I want is for the courts to step in and force these clubs to open their doors. I want the club memberships to recognize that the times have changed and that all male clubs of such incredible public significance ought to be open to qualified, deserving women.
Obviously, Doctor Louise Richard is such a woman.
Saint Andrews (Old)
by Charlie Leck
"The lairdship of the bonny Links of Forth,I first played the Old Course when I was a young man, still in graduate school, and newly acquainted with the game of golf. I was visiting the city for academic and cultural reasons and in the company of a group of non-golfers. I’d only played a few public courses in those days – Francis Gross and Columbia Heights – in addition to a little 9-hole track in South Dakota. Nevertheless, the bug had bitten me and I was entirely infected with the disease. Now I found myself in golf’s great city to tour the grand old University of Saint Andrews, the ruins of the great cathedral and castle, and to study ecclesiastical matters. Pilgrims regularly came from all across Europe to visit Saint Andrews. It is a community rich in Christian history – both Roman and Protestant. “It was the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland,” wrote David Joy.[i] Locals claim that the ghost of John Knox, the Protestant reformer, inhabits North Street. In the mid-16th century, Knox was a hell-fire and brimstone preacher and attacked the Papacy with a vengeance. He was tried and acquitted of treason in 1560. The Scots count him as the creator of Protestant Scotland and he is an important figure in their history. He is not the only ghost claimed for Saint Andrews. An unknown monk also roams around and a mysterious, invisible coach is often heard rumbling along in the streets. Though small, the University is the oldest in Scotland and awards a degree that is highly coveted in academic circles. Three of the twelve signers of our own Declaration of Independence were graduates of Saint Andrews.
is better than an Earldom in the North Nimmo’s Stirlingshire"
Charles Blair Macdonald, that giant of a figure in the grand history and tradition of golf, spent some time as a boy in Saint Andrews, living with his grandfather, studying at the University and learning to play golf under Old Tom Morris.
“I found I was living in a city of ancient times, founded some six or seven hundred years before America was discovered, and I was enrolled in a university established before the birth of Columbus. Legendary history conflicts as to the repository of the bones of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, but it is generally conceded that they were brought by Regulus in the eighth century to the town that now bears his name. The fact that one legend of Regulus makes him an Irishman has emboldened my friend, the Honorable Morgan J. O’Brien, to claim that the good saint brought golf from Ireland to Scotland along with the bones.
“For many years St. Andrews was the battle-ground between the Church of Rome, the English Church, and the Presbyterian Church of John Knox. Its history is largely legendary, and its beginnings, like the beginnings of golf, are lost in antiquity.”[ii]
It was a lovely July in Scotland and I could see a little corner of the golfing property from my B&B window. I sat drinking morning tea, wishing there was some way I could get to the Old Course.
“Links land,” I read in my guidebook, “is old, sandy, receded seabed unfit for anything but golf.”
“Links land,” I read in my guidebook, “is old, sandy, receded seabed unfit for anything but golf.”
Everywhere we walked in the city there were reminders that this was the “home of golf.” I knew I was going to have to break from my group and wander down to the Links to, at least, find out if it was possible to play the Old Course and how much it might cost.
It was both possible and very reasonable. The course wasn’t as heavily played in those days. Television and Jack Nicklaus had not yet made it famous. Jack would win the 1970 Open in a playoff against Doug Sanders. Most all golf fans long in the tooth remember Nicklaus tossing his putter high into the sky after sinking the winning putt. He’d come back to win the Open at Saint Andrew again in 1978. It was after those wins that it became more complicated to get on the Old Course.
The most difficult matter for me was finding a way to escape from our regular and disciplined group plans. The rain made it possible. We woke on a mid-week morning to dull gray skies and steady precipitation. The early schedule held together, but a walking tour through the city and university was canceled and I was free for an afternoon.
So what that it was raining!
An elderly caddy scrounged me up a set of golf clubs and the starter fitted me in with three other fellows waiting on the first tee. One was a young American soldier on leave. The other two were well-worn and shaggy Scots who didn’t have much time for small talk and congeniality. The soldier, Eddie Conklin, from Kansas City, has remained a friend even to this day and we write faithfully to each other a couple times a year.
The rain fell softly, but steadily. The sky was solid gray and it was evident that our entire game would be played in these conditions. There was little wind, however, and that would turn out to be a blessing. The first teeing ground seemed to shift beneath me as I tried to push my peg into it. I noticed that my hands quivered. I took aim far to the left, way over into he 18th fairway, and launched my ball solidly and with exceptional loft. As expected, its crazy spin kept moving it to the right as it flew out in front of me. It landed safely on the far right edge of the 1st fairway, far enough out that I could walk to it unashamed.
“Yer losin’ great distance with a swing like that, laddie,” my caddy said to me as he matched my stride down Burn – the given name for the first hole. “Yuh must learn to hit the ball from inside and not loop yer club over to the outside like that and come across the ball so.”
My first golf lesson came at Saint Andrews. Never mind that it was from an old caddy who was bearing all the embarrassment about my swing far more heavily than the bag and clubs he carried for me. It was an embarrassment that I had not yet learned to carry. Yet, he was wise enough to know that he was stuck with my swing that day and he pointed out targets far left of the actual places where he knew my ball would land.
The holes going out on the Old Course seemed to favor my ‘over-faded’ shots more than those that followed the turn. The card from that day, still safely and proudly scrap-booked, shows I made the turn in 42. Not bad on a strange course and using rather scroungy rental clubs. That included a birdie on ‘End’ (the 9th hole), where I remember topping my second shot badly. I watched the miss-hit shot roll and bound along the ground and settle finally on the putting surface right next to the hole.
The inward holes ate my lunch. It didn’t matter then. I hadn’t yet learned to get angry about bad shots. Nor was I embarrassed by them then. I was having the time of my life and I judged the ground over which I walked to be both sacred and as beautiful as any piece of land I’d ever seen.
I’ll never forget the sounds of several of my golf balls banging on top of the tin roofs on the sheds that guarded the corner of the ‘Road Hole.’ The two Scots in our foursome shook their heads in disbelief as Eddie and I laughed at the noise the balls made. I have always considered that wonderful corner one of the most enchanting places on any golf course I’ve ever visited. How disappointed I was to find, on a return visit, that a modern hotel had replaced those delightful old sheds.
By the time I’d crossed the Swilken Bridge and worked my way out of the ‘Valley of Sin’ on the 18th putting surface, and got my ball into the hole, I’d failed to break 50. Nevertheless, I humbly asked Eddie and my caddy to sign my rain-soaked card for me.
And now the Open Championship is about to be played at the Old Course again. There’s nothing in golf like an Open Championship at Saint Andrews. When played there it is more than just the championship of British golf. At this venue – at the very place that nurtured the game to such honorable maturity – it is for all the marbles.
Twenty-seven (that’s 27) Open Championships have been played on the Old Course. What winners have strode proudly from the final putting surface! Old Tom Morris himself, of course, but so many other historic golfing names were among the winners on the Old Course. Taylor! Braid! Hutchinson! Jones! Hagen! Snead! Thompson! Locke! Lema! Nicklaus! Faldo! Ballesteros! Daly! Woods!
The father of Jack Nicklaus went over to Saint Andrews in 1959 in order to scout the course while Jack was at Muirfield playing in the Walker Cup. The report came back to Jack that it was the worse course his dad had ever seen. So, the rising star was prepared for a terrible venue when he went over in 1964.
“I just fell in love with it from the first day,” Jack said. Today he calls Saint Andrews and Augusta his “two favorite places in the game of golf.”
I guess David Fay would have shaken his head at Jack’s review, or waggled a finger toward his nose.
‘Anyone who raves about the Old Course after just one or two rounds there is either a liar or a fool,' says David Fay, Executive Director of the USGA. Fay relates that it was not until he served as a referee in the 1990 Open Championship there and spent four days walking the course and watching the game's best tack their way round it that he began to appreciate the most famous course in golf.[iii]
"The course is a surprise each time you look at it," Nicklaus said. "No matter how many times you play it, you'll still find things that you've never seen before. Every time, the conditions change and you have to make adjustments."[iv]
In Jack’s autobiography, My Story, he wrote the following about how the golfer must handle the Old Course:
"First, he must become acclimatized to and comfortable with playing the game on what much of the time ... doesn't look or feel like a golf course at all… Second, he must learn what those ever-changing winds will do to his ball. ... To me, those factors in combination make a British Open at the home of golf the most intriguing and maybe the most demanding challenge in the entire game."[v]
Nicklaus is adored in Saint Andrews and all of Scotland. The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) has announced that it will issue currency during the Open with a picture of Nicklaus on the bills. Nicklaus will become the only living person to be on a Scottish note beside the current Queen and the late Queen Mother. I suppose it helps that RBS has an advertising endorsement deal with Nicklaus.
Bobby Jones hated the Old Course the first time he ever played there. Like Jack’s father, he thought it the worst golf course he’d ever seen. Of course, we all know how he grew to love it there and came to believe that Saint Andrews was the seed-bed from which all great golf course design would have to grow.
“The more you study it, the more you love it,” said Bobby Jones, “and the more you love it, the more you study it.”
Jones not only won the Open Champion there in 1927, but in his later life, because he was so greatly loved, he was made “a Freeman” – an honorary citizen of the city of Saint Andrews. His closing remark in his acceptance speech brought tears to all in attendance.
“If I could take out of my life everything but my experiences in Saint Andrews I would still have had a rich, full life.”The audience rose and broke spontaneously into song: “Will Ye No’ Come back Again.”
Jones not only won the Open Championship in 1927, he won the hearts and affection of the people of Saint Andrews. Today he is regarded as highly on the links of Saint Andrews as is Old Tom Morris. He was awarded an honorary membership in the Saint Andrews Golf Club in 1959.
I remember having an after-dinner drink with Phil Reith in the sitting room of the wonderful Gray Walls Hotel just off the 10th tee at Muirfield. It was in 1985. Phil started up a conversation with two elderly ladies and they found our golf professional charming. Phil learned that one of them was an MP – a Member of Parliament. That intrigued us all and Phil dug further and found out that this MP had spent considerable time with Bobby Jones on one of his trips to Scotland. There was an enormous look of affection in the old woman’s eyes and they were filled with moisture as she spoke about Bobby and the love that all of Scotland had for him. She made us feel as if it had been only a moment ago when Bobby won the Open on the Old Course.
Sam Snead’s initial reaction to the Old Course was far different than that of Jack Nicklaus. It was more like Bobby’s first impression.
“It looks like an old, abandoned kind of place,” Sam Snead said of the Old Course when he saw it from his arriving train in 1946. He hated it. He called it “mighty fine pasture land.” Of course, no one ever accused Sam of having delicate taste. I’m sure he also preferred liverwurst to paté de fois gras. Sam went on to win the Open that year, having driven four of the Old Course’s two-shotters during the week. He withstood fierce winds on the final day and kept his ball in play and his putting was sure and steady. Though he shot a final round 75, he won by 3 shots. When the time came to present the Championship Trophy to Sam, officials had to hunt him down in his hotel while impatient fans waited. Sam took home $600 (U.S.) for winning the open. He usually bet far more when playing on Tuesdays with his pals.
John Daly responded to the comments of Snead that he has often read: “It looked like the cow pasture everyone told me it was," Daly said, "but it's awesome. I fell in love with the place."
Ben Crenshaw calls it sacred ground. Crenshaw, along with Bill Coor, has established his credentials as one of the finest designers in the nation. I’ll go with Crenshaw’s comments.
Scot Hoch called it the “worst piece of mess I’ve ever seen,” and he refuses to return to it even when he’s qualified to. Our own fellow Woodhill member, Charlie Crosby, agrees with Hoch. Charlie has raged at me about what an awful and ugly golf course Saint Andrews is. How I wish I could get Charlie to sit with me in the bar at the top of the Old Course Hotel and look out over the links land when the sun is low in the sky. It is one of the most beautiful sights my eyes have ever beheld.
John Hawkins, in Golf World Magazine, wrote that Americans might find it “somewhere between an acquired taste and an amusement park without rides.” Hawkins concedes, however, that it is a “600 year old venue that has barely flinched through the entire chronology of equipment technology.”[vi] This may be the most telling comment of all.
During his practice rounds in 2000, Tiger woods played a gutta-percha off the 9th teeing ground and walloped a powerful drive down the fairway on the 352 yard hole. He still had a 5-iron left to the green. It helps you understand why the winning score in a one-day Championship in 1873 was 91-88. Tom Kidd was the victor by one shot, playing in a steady, day-long, soaking rain.
Fred Couples calls the Old Course his “favorite course of all time.”
In an Associated Press article this week, Lee Westwood compared it to a song you don’t really like, but “you end up humming it all day.”
Doctor Allister MacKenzie believed that no designer would ever build a great golf course without understanding Saint Andrews. In his book, The Spirit of Saint Andrews, MacKenzie explained the influence the Old Course had on him.
“I am by nature a revolutionary, and only too apt to scoff at tradition. Before visiting St. Andrews I had what were considered revolutionary ideas regarding golf courses. To my astonishment, when I inspected the Old Course I found my ideals in actual practice. I have been a staunch supporter of the Old Course ever since, and I have always opposed suggested alterations to it.”[vii]
Donald Ross believed that no man could have possessed enough genius to design and build the Old Course. He claimed it could only have been done by God. My wife would say: “The sheep and God!”
In 1985, if you had picked up a yardage book for the Old course, you would have been surprised to find a highly literate and absolutely enjoyable “Preface to Course Guide” included in it.
“In a very real sense, Nature created the course. It evolved in its own way. There is no suggestion in the lay-out of the neat-looking, well-groomed, orthodox designs of current architecture. The Old Course was shaped by natural forces… The process began when the sea receded, leaving sand-banks and channels of salt water that slowly dried out. In time these ridges became wind-scarred sand-dunes of marram while the sheltered valleys were carpeted with bent and fescue that in turn attracted colonies of rabbits, the right ingredients to anticipate a links of excellent golfing turf.”[viii]
“The Old Course… was modeled by the winds of God that formed the dunes into random and eccentrically complex shapes, indifferent then, as now, to the vanities of men.”[ix]Sir Guy Campbell put it another way. He is often called the most knowledgeable and eloquent historian of the Old Course. The following is the opening verse of his long poem, The Old Course Speaks.
I have heard the North Sea
Foot by foot receding.
Through the Ages as they spent;
Adding to my Loanings,
Gracious ground for Golfers,
Spread far for their content.
Golf was first played at Saint Andrews as early the 15th century. That early play was over 12 holes and that grew to 22 – 11 out and the same number in, sharing putting surfaces all the way. It was in the late 18th century that the number was reduced to 18 and the layout as it is played today was established in approximately 1842.
Ross, the grounds superintendent at Royal Dornach, spent a year as an intern at the Old Course before heading to America. That year, and the other times he played there, left an enduring and indelible mark on him and affected all his design work thereafter. Like all the other great course designers of his time, he constantly drew inspiration from the Old Course.
When one realizes the level to which the Old Course takes the concept of risk and reward and that even the slightest amount of side to side movement on a shot might send a ball careening toward a dangerous bunker, it is nearly unfathomable to recount that Tiger Woods never put a ball into a single bunker during four days of play in 2000. He won the Open Championship by 8 strokes and he was going away.
"It changes and evolves every day without losing any of its fairness,” Woods said of the Old Course.
And, it is important to understand bunkering at Saint Andrews. Perhaps then we would never again complain about how our bunkers are maintained at Woodhill. Bunkers are absolute hazards on the Old Course. You do not want to be in them. They are meant to be avoided and a golfer is punished when his ball finds one. They are not highly groomed. The sand depths are not consistent. There are occasional pebbles, stones and rocks. There are tufts of grass in them. They have been left nearly as the sheep, seeking shelter from the wind, dug them out.
There are 112 bunkers on the Old Course. Tom Moriarity wrote that some “…make absolutely no sense whatsoever until the wind turns around and you find yourself chest-high in one you didn’t even know existed.”[x]
“Most bunkers are in natural hollows where the thin surface of topsoil was broken to reveal the sand beneath. Some have been refined for modern use and in the early 1900s additional bunkers were put in to the right of several outward holes to replace the bushes that had once flourished. A bunker in the wide expanse of the shared first and last fairways was removed in 1914… But man has merely tinkered with a few surface details. The natural challenge of the Old Course remains intact, as daunting and rewarding as it has been throughout the history of the game.”[xi]
Tom Doak, as talented and as genius as any golf course designer who ever lived, believes the Old Course is so masterful because man had no hand in laying it out. The course is as nature gave it to the shepherds who first played the game there. The course itself designed and created the game. Doak would return toward the Old Course in his work. In building Pacific Dunes and Cape Kidnappers, he has returned. He believes that the land is the land and golf should be played over it. Creating artificial hazards and including paraphernalia is not necessary for great golf. All that’s needed is great land.
Each of the bunkers at Saint Andrews carries a personal name – a very relevant and somewhat historical moniker – and many of the regular golfers at the Old Course know each and every one of these given names. Many of us know the more famous – or infamous – of these bunkers. “The Coffins” on the 13th hole will come into play in 2005 because 35 yards was added to the hole. It will take a carry of 285 yards to fly them. On the 14th hole, the championship tee has been moved over to the Eden Course, behind a stone wall, to stretch the hole to 618 yards. Now, both the “Beardies” and “Hell” will come into play on the drive and second shot respectively. David Duval got acquainted with the ‘Road Hole’ bunker in the previous Open Championship played
on the Old Course.
Wind is also an important natural force at Saint Andrews. It is as important as the bunkers. Charles Blair Macdonald, in his classic book, called wind “the finest asset in golf.”
“Wind I consider the finest asset in golf; in itself it is one of the greatest and most delightful accomplishments in the game. Without wind your course is always the same, but as the wind varies in velocity and from the various points of the compass, you not only have one course but you have many courses…. It is here that the true golfer excels. Low says: ‘A good golfer always prays for a windy day, but he must not pray too earnestly.”[xii]Without wind, Saint Andrews will lay naked and defenseless before today’s professionals. The lack of wind is why Woods went to 19 under in his 2000 victory. If the wind blows forcibly during the 2005 Open it will make for some of the most exciting golf we’ve ever watched.
In 1964, Tony Lema won the Open Championship at Saint Andrews. The wind blew fiercely all week long, destroying many concession tents and most scores as well. Lema played masterfully, keeping the ball extremely low and on-line all three days (it wasn’t until 1966 that the Open was played over four days).
The 2005 Open at Saint Andrews will be very historic. Jack Nicklaus will take a few steps up to the top of the little Swilken Bridge in this year’s Open. Let’s hope it’s on Sunday rather than Friday. Thousands of photographs will be taken of that historic moment when Jack waves goodbye from the bridge.
In a practice round at the Old Course this week, Nick Faldo asked photographers to take photo of him on the bridge with Jack Nicklaus. Such sentiment, you see, is not exclusive to the amateurs and tourists.[xiii]
“I got my picture on the bridge with Jack,” Faldo said, smiling like a kid.
For any golfer, it’s an incredible feeling to walk across that bridge – incredible and indescribable. It’s one of the most extraordinary landmarks in golf. I’ll never forget the first time I strode over it so many years ago as I began my walk up the fairway at Tom Morris (the 18th). The majestic clubhouse was out ahead of me. Even in the rain, it was as wonderful a feeling as I have ever had in golf. One of my favorite photos, from all of my scrapbooks, is of Phil Reith, with a smile as wide as his face, making his way across Swilken Burn via that bridge in 1985. His caddie was looking back at him, wondering what was causing the delay.
I have another great photo of Phil, with an ice-cream eating grin on his face, attempting to retrieve his ball from the burn just in front of the 1st putting surface. It is the single water hazard on the entire course.
In a few days the Open Championship will begin at Saint Andrews. I will video tape every moment of it so that I can sit in the evening and watch the Old Course match wits with the greatest golfers in the world – minus Scot Hoch, of course, who does not know a real beauty when he sees one. They’ll play for the Claret Jug, the famous trophy that has been given to the winner ever since 1873. In the years previous to that, the winner had received the Challenge Belt – a thick, heavy belt made of rich Moroccan leather and adorned with a large silver buckle.
As you watch the Open, don’t think so much of the Old Course at Saint Andrews as a golf course. Think of it as the inspiration from which most of the great course designers have drawn their
Dave Shedloski, writing for the PGA Tour web site says that the Old Course “is as firm and unforgiving as Cinderella’s stepmother.”[xiv] Divots are exploding and disappearing as dust. Spin means little. Touch means everything. The general opinion is that this makes it a wide open Open.
Jack Nicklaus said in an interview on Monday, after his practice round, that the Old Course is “hard as brick… and rain isn’t going to make much of difference… These are the kind of conditions where moderate length hitters probably have a better chance to succeed.”[xv]
END (references follow)
[i] Joy, David and Lowe, Iain Macfarlane: Saint Andrews and the Open Championship [Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, Michigan, 1999, p.10].
[ii] Macdonald, Charles Blair: Scotland’s Gift: Golf [Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1928, p. 4].
[iii] Internet site of Golf Club Atlas: http://www.golfclubatlas.com/standrews1.html (accessed on July 6, 2005)
[iv] Golf Web: “An Ever-Changing Old Course Nothing New” [Golf Web Internet site: http://www.golfweb.com/tournaments/britishopen/story/8638762 (accessed July 12, 2005)].
[v] Nicklaus, Jack: My Story [Simon & Schuster, New York, 1998, p. 167]
[vi] Hawkins, John: “Fairest of Them All” [Golf World Magazine, July 8, 2005, pps. 38-42].
[vii] MacKenzie, Alister: The Spirit of Saint Andrews [Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, Michigan, 1995, pps 6-7]
[viii] Stanley, Louis: Saint Andrews: The Home of Golf [Salem House Publishers, Topsfield, Massachusets, 987, p. 31].
[ix] Saint Andrews Links Management Committee: Preface to Course Guide in the Golf Course Yardage Book [Saint Andrews Links Management Committee, Saint Andrews, 1985].
[x] Moriarity, Jim: “Easy Pickings” [Golf World Magazine, July 8, 2005, pps. 43-45].
[xi] From the official web site of the Open Championship: http://www.opengolf.com/course/history.sps (accessed July 8, 2005)
[xii] Macdonald, Charles Blair: Scotland’s Gift: Golf [Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1928, pps. 295-296].
[xiii] Ross Helen: “Faldo Plays Practice Round with his ‘Inspiration’” http://www.golfweb.com/tournaments/britishopen/story/8638425 (accessed July 12, 2005)].
[xiv] Shedloski, Dave: “Parched Old Course Means a True Open” [PGA Tour Web Site, http://www.pgatour.com/tournaments/britishopen/story/8638418 (accessed July 12, 2005)].
[xv] Shedloski, Dave: “Parched Old Course Means a True Open” [PGA Tour Web Site, http://www.pgatour.com/tournaments/britishopen/story/8638418 (accessed July 12, 2005)].